Over the years death rate among infants has being on the increase.
Although the average death rate in Africa ranges from 10 to 15 out of every 1000 births and that of the United States is stated to be around 4 to 6 of every 1000 births.
Despite the increase specialties and improvement in child health care, there are several other factors that can be taken into consideration.
Shortly we will be taking a brief look at some of the most predominant factor that can lead to death among infant as well as their causes and prevention.
Congenital defect is a medical term that can easily be translated to birth defect. In most infants the effect may be mild, such that leads to partial deformity and psychological effects while in some cases it could be life threatening.
It accounts for over 45% of the total death rate in infants and they include:
Congenital defects in infants are treated based on the type of defects and furthermore, the stage of detection.
In some cases surgery is required immediately to correct the defect while other cases such as down syndrome can only be managed
SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME (SIDS)
Sudden infant death syndrome is the sudden and unexplainable death of a baby less than a year old.
As at now, the proven cause of the Sudden infant death syndrome is unknown.
However, the most acceptable explanation for the Sudden infant death syndrome is that it is caused by a major defect in the part of the brain that regulates involuntary actions such as breathing.
The sickness been a major cause of death among infants have no symptoms and no cure.
According to verywellhealth, in 2016, 1500 infants died as a result of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDs).
Complications in pregnant women are the major causes of infant death especially in Africa. Its mostly common in rural areas of developing countries. The most common way of preventing infant death that arises as a result of pregnancy complications is adequate prenatal health care and medical consultation.
To reduce child death caused by pregnancy complications, expecting mothers are being diagnosed and carefully examined medically month after month.
Also, every illness the mother suffers during the period has to be carefully treated.
Examples o the most common of these situation includes
Pre-eclampsia—high risk of uncontrollable blood pressure
Placenta previa – when the uterus is located above the uterus. Most times, it is actually the placenta that is displaced.
Incompetent cervix – The cervix is the passage way for the baby during delivery. Due to several factors, the cervical muscles may become incapable of stretching while in other cases,
According to reports from the CDC, the primary causes of injury in infants under the age of 3 include suffocation and drowning. While suffocation is predominantly found among children within 1 year of age, drowning is mostly associated with children from 2 to 4 years of age.
PLACENTA AND UMBIBLICAL CORD COMPLICATIONS
Before a child is born the placenta is responsible for supplying the fetus with food and nutrient that is gotten from the mother.
Biologically, the placenta has a dual function of supplying the needed nutrient and taking away the waste product from the fetus to the mother.
The two major complications that can lead to infant death as a result of the placenta include;
Placental insufficiency: This is a complication were the placenta goes in an abnormal sequence that does not support adequate fertile development.
Placental infarction – which can be described as dead tissue blocking the entrance of the placenta thereby preventing nutrients and oxygen from getting to the developing tissues in the appropriate quantity.
PRACTICAL MEASURES TO REDUCE INFANT MORTALITY
Despite some of the causes of death in infant are unavailable, you can actually follow some prescribed medical advices to reduce the chances of giving birth to a still baby/child.
MEDICAL ADVICE NUMBER 1
Preterm birth as the word implies involves giving birth to a premature child. In some cases, the child chances of survival depends on the level of development of its organs. For example, a child with a less developed lungs may find it difficult to breathe properly.
If the lungs is developed to a reasonable stage, treatment such as ventilators can help stabilize the breathing condition of the child to allow the lungs develop further.
MEDICAL ADVICE NUMBER 2
GETTING PRE-NATAL CARE.
During pregnancy, the health of the mother Is a predominant factor that clearly affects how the foetus develops . Through proper medical care during the period of pregnancy, a mother can help increase the chances of a safe delivery.
All causes of infant mortality listed above can all be prevented through proper pre-natal care and education.
MEDICAL ADVICE NUMBER 3.
DETECT HIDDEN CONDITIONS USING SCREENING METHODS.
This is a precautionary method of detecting hidden conditions before they physically show up. Most states in the United States screen for as high as 30-50 conditions.
This will help in the early detection of illnesses or deformities and also ensure early treatments so as t increase the chances of survival and decrease infant mortality.